Annotated Bibliography Final

Chrystal Garcia

Writing 101

Annotated Bibliography

Munn, M. (2011). Living in the aftermath: the impact of lengthy incarceration on post-


carceral success. The Howard Journal, 50(3), 233-246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-





Melissa Munn, a professor at Okanagan College in Canada, attempts to prove that


there is a possibility of success for ex-convicts who have been released after serving


long term sentences. There has been much research on the negative effects of long


term imprisonment, however, there is very little research on those who have

managed to overcome all the obstacles and lead a successful life after prison.


Through interviews of ex-convicts, the author learns that although there are many


obstacles these men must face in their relationships with others, the way they learn


to deal with their freedom, and their paranoia of being sent back, there are those who


manage to lead relatively normal lives. This study contradicts my hypothesis that


long term prison sentences hinder a person’s ability to live normal lives in society.



Phelps, M.S. (2011). Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and reality in

U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review, 45(1), 33-68.


There has been much talk about rehabilitation programs being used in prisons. As Phelps

discusses in this article, nothing that is being talked about is being acted on. The research

shows that since the 1970s and 1980s government began to focus more on the punishment than on the rehabilitation of prisoners. It was not until the 1990s that there began to be more participation in rehabilitation programs for prisoners. Research shows that if the prison system focuses on punishment, they prisoners will be treated simply as criminals and they will never get out of the cycle of crime and incarceration that they are in. If they are involved in rehabilitation programs, however, they will have a better chance of succeeding when they are released. This study shows a solution to the problem that I plan to address in my literature review of the difficulties ex-convicts have in reintegrating into society.



Raphael, S. (2011). Incarceration and prisoner reentry in the United States. The ANNALS of the

American Academy of Political and Social Science, 635, 192-215. DOI: 10.1177/0002716210393321


The author, Stephen Raphael, examines the effects of long term incarceration on a

person’s ability to obtain employment. It focuses especially on the employers’ views of

applicants with criminal records. Those who have been incarcerated for long periods of

time and are much older have a much more difficult time finding employment because

they have not acquired many skills since they have been incarcerated and they are

physically incapable of doing the only jobs they are qualified for. The author

concludes that there must be more programs that help inmates learn the skills they

need to find employment when they are released.  This study is directly related to

my topic because it shows the problems that former prisoners have when they are

released after long term incarceration.


K. L. Barrett (2011). Life After Life Imprisonment. The Howard Journal 50(3), 335-341.



This article reviews the studies conducted by others who have observed the lives of

prisoners who were given life sentences and were released. Much of the research that

had been done until now only looked at the failures of those who were released from

long term imprisonment, however, there are many of those who have succeeded. As

Catherine Appleton found through a series of interviews, with the help of their parole officers, many of these former prisoners were able to reintegrate into society and live normal lives alongside their relatives and friends. This study shows that there are ways to

help former inmates surpass the obstacles of being isolated from society for so long and that institutionalization can be stopped.


Walters, G.D. (2010). Predicting recidivism with the psychological inventory

of Criminal Thinking Styles and Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version. Law Human Behavior, 35, 211-220. DOI 10.1007/s10979-010-9231-7.


Walters discusses the ways in which recidivism can be predicted in certain inmates. One of the criteria for predicting recidivism is the length of the prison sentence. The longer an inmate has been imprisoned, the more likely they are to reoffend when they are released. He found that the longer they are in prison, the more they are learning from other inmates how to commit worse crimes and they are more likely to test their new skills when they

are released. They also become so accustomed to the prison lifestyle that they are

often times not afraid of returning to prison. This contradicts the study conducted

Barrett in which it was found that they are able to succeed when they are released.

This study relates to my topic because it provides further insight into the problem

of recidivism and why it is occurring.




Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s