Munn, M. (2011). Living in the aftermath: the impact of lengthy incarceration on
post-carceral success. The Howard Journal,
50(3), 233-246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2311.2011.00663.x
Melissa Munn, a professor at Okanagan College in Canada, attempts to prove that
there is a possibility of success for ex-convicts who have been released after serving
long term sentences. There has been much research on the negative effects of long
term imprisonment, however, there is very little research on those who have
managed to overcome all the obstacles and lead a successful life after prison.
Through interviews of ex-convicts, the author learns that although there are many
obstacles these men must face in their relationships with others, the way they learn
to deal with their freedom, and their paranoia of being sent back, there are those who
manage to lead relatively normal lives. This study contradicts my hypothesis that
long term prison sentences hinder a person’s ability to live normal lives in society.
Raphael, S. (2011). Incarceration and prisoner reentry in the United States.
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
635, 192- 215. DOI: 10.1177/0002716210393321
The author, Stephen Raphael, examines the effects of long term incarceration on a
person’s ability to obtain employment. It focuses especially on the employers’
views of applicants with criminal records. Those who have been incarcerated for
long periods of time and are much older have a much more difficult time finding
employment because they have not acquired many skills since they have been
incarcerated and they are physically incapable of doing the only jobs they are
qualified for. The author concludes that there must be more programs that help inmates learn the skills they need to find employment when they are released. This
study is directly related to my topic because it shows the problems that former prisoners have when they are released after long term incarceration.
Phelps, M.S. (2011). Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and
reality in U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review, 45(1), 33-68.
There has been much talk about rehabilitation programs being used in prisons. As Phelps discusses in this article, nothing that is being talked about is being acted on. The research shows that since the 1970s and 1980s government began to focus more on the punishment than on the rehabilitation of prisoners. It was not until the 1990s that there began
to be more participation in rehabilitation programs for prisoners. Research
shows that if the prison system focuses on punishment, they prisoners will be
treated simply as criminals and they will never get out of the cycle of crime
and incarceration that they are in. If they are involved in rehabilitation
programs, however, they will have a better chance of succeeding when they are
released. This study shows a solution to the problem that I plan to address in
my literature review of the difficulties ex-convicts have in reintegrating into