Annotated Bibliography

Munn, M. (2011). Living in the aftermath: the impact of lengthy incarceration on
post-carceral success. The Howard Journal,
50(3), 233-246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2311.2011.00663.x


Melissa Munn, a professor at Okanagan College in Canada, attempts to prove that

there is a possibility of success for ex-convicts who have been released after serving

long term sentences. There has been much research on the negative effects of long

term imprisonment, however, there is very little research on those who have

managed to overcome all the obstacles and lead a successful life after prison.

Through interviews of ex-convicts, the author learns that although there are many

obstacles these men must face in their relationships with others, the way they learn

to deal with their freedom, and their paranoia of being sent back, there are those who

manage to lead relatively normal lives. This study contradicts my hypothesis that

long term prison sentences hinder a person’s ability to live normal lives in society.


Raphael, S. (2011). Incarceration and prisoner reentry in the United States.

The ANNALS  of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,

635, 192-  215. DOI: 10.1177/0002716210393321

The author, Stephen Raphael, examines the effects of long term incarceration on a
person’s ability to obtain employment. It focuses especially on the employers’
views of applicants with criminal records. Those who have been incarcerated for
long periods of time and are much older have a much more difficult time finding
employment because they have not acquired many skills since they have been
incarcerated and they are physically incapable of doing the only jobs they are
qualified for. The author concludes that there must be more programs that help      inmates learn the skills they need to find employment when they are released.  This
study is directly related to my topic because it shows the problems that former        prisoners have when they are released after long term incarceration.


Phelps, M.S. (2011). Rehabilitation in the punitive era: the gap between rhetoric and
reality in U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review, 45(1), 33-68.


There has been much talk about rehabilitation programs being used in prisons. As Phelps discusses in this article, nothing that is being talked about is being acted on. The research shows that since the 1970s and 1980s government began to focus more on the punishment than on the rehabilitation of prisoners. It was not until the 1990s that there began
to be more participation in rehabilitation programs for prisoners. Research
shows that if the prison system focuses on punishment, they prisoners will be
treated simply as criminals and they will never get out of the cycle of crime
and incarceration that they are in. If they are involved in rehabilitation
programs, however, they will have a better chance of succeeding when they are
released. This study shows a solution to the problem that I plan to address in
my literature review of the difficulties ex-convicts have in reintegrating into

This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to Annotated Bibliography

  1. theresewriting101 says:

    I. Overall, you were straight forward and to the point. Although, you may want to consider re-reading/re-phrasing your third sentence because I had to re-read it a few times to make sense of it.
    II. Overall, it is well organized and the ideas are expressed clearly and logically. I don’t see any obvious sentences or ideas out of place.
    III. I liked how you’ve concluded that this study contradicts your hypothesis. But perhaps if you included some limitations, it could bring more support to your hypothesis in a different way. (Does that make sense?)
    IV. Overall, the formating is good. However, I don’t see any specific variables (sample population etc.) of the ex-convicts that were interviewed nor any limitations. I think if you included those sections, your bibliography would be much stronger.
    V. Overall the mechanics were good and I saw no major grammatical errors. With the exception of the third sentence where I would recommend revising and making use of semi-colins. I would also note that you might want to fix the spacing so that it matches the other two bibliographies (or vice versa).

    I. You have great clarity. It was easy to read and comprehend and was straight to the point.
    II. All of the sentences and ideas are expressed logically and clearly.
    III. I liked how you have briefly mentioned the results of the studies as well as the correlation to your own hypothesis. You might want to consider going into further depth with the methods by including specific variables and populations in order to make it more credible.
    IV. Overall, the formating is great. Just be sure to include those specific variables, sample populations, and limitations.
    V. I don’t see any obvious grammatical errors and the mechanics seem accurate.

    I. Compared to your last two bibliographies, this one does not have as much clarity. But, perhaps it is because of a few grammatical errors (see V).
    II. In terms of organization, your ideas are clearly connected. I would suggest proof reading and re-reading your work out-loud because I had to re-read a few sentences to understand what you meant.
    IV. You’ve included all the appropriate and necessary sections. I would again give more detail about the specific variables, sample populations, and limitations.
    V. There are a few grammatical errors you may want to consider revising. For example, in the second sentence, “being talked about is being acted on” sounds a little awkward. Make sure throughout your bibliography that you use the same tense whether it be past or present, don’t mix them. Also, in the senetence, “It was not until the 1990s that there began
to be more participation in rehabilitation programs for prisoners,” did you mean that “they” instead of there?

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s